Application of Inheritance Laws in India ugg boots deutschland

Application of Inheritance Laws in India


Application of Inheritance Laws in India 

No uniform codified inheritance laws apply in India. The Constitution of India provides freedom of conscience (i.e., religious faith as a fundamental right). Family law has always been a part of religious law. This means that no uniform code for civil law exists in India, even though it has been put into the Directive Principles of State Policy of the Constitution of India. Since laws of marriage and succession are the most intricate amongst the religious laws, inheritance issues in India are very complicated.           

The main laws pertaining to issues related to succession and inheritance by foreigners in India are: The Foreigners’ Act (provision for the government to make orders restricting or prohibiting rights of a foreign citizen) and The Foreign Exchange and Management Act (Acquisition and Transfer of Immovable Property in India).

Only Muslim inheritance laws have a reserved portion in India.

Except for the Muslim laws of inheritance, which require at least 2/3 of the deceased’s property to be inherited by the line of succession and allow up to 1/3 to be settled by testamentary succession, India’s other inheritance laws do not have any reserved portion, i.e. the entire property may be subject to testamentary succession or intestate succession if there is no will.

Orders of intestate succession:

The following is an outline of the orders of succession and the shares of inheritance for heirs in different groups in India:

If the deceased is a Hindu male (including Buddhists, Sikh, Jain, and all those who are not Christian, Muslim or Parsi):

Class I heirs of a male Hindu who shall simultaneously inherit are:

•              Mother being alive (1 share)

•              Widow (1 share)

•              Living sons (1 share each)

•              Living daughters (1 share each)

•              Predeceased son having the following relations (1 share)

•              widow

•              sons

•              daughters – each to be equally divided.

If a predeceased son of this predeceased son leaves a widow, the living sons and living daughters each shall equally share the share of the predeceased son of the predeceased son who has one share with living sons and daughters. Predeceased daughter (1 share) to be equally shared by sons and daughters of the predeceased daughter.

In case there is none in the class I schedule, the property shall go to the class II based order. The earlier order is preferred over the later, (i.e. if an earlier order is present, the later orders would not inherit) in orders :

•              Father (whole in the absence of anybody in class I)

•              Son’s daughter’s son; son’s daughter’s daughter, Brother, Sister ( all in equal proportion)

•              Daughter’s son’s son, daughter’s son’s daughter, daughter’s daughter’s son,                daughter’s daughter’s daughter (equally)

•              Brother’s son, brother’s daughter, sister’s son and sister’s daughter

•              Father’s father, Father’s mother (equally)

•              Father’s widow, brother’s widow

•              Father’s brother, Father’s sister

•              Mother’s father, mother’s mother

•              Mother’s brother, mother’s sister

If the deceased is a female Hindu dying intestate:

A: Sons (1 share each), Daughters (1 share each), husband (1 share), son and daughter of predeceased son (equally together 1 sha zebvhjfm. oro uggsre), son and daughter of predeceased daughter (equally together I share).

B: Heirs of Husband Entry

C: Father and Mother Entry

D: Father’ shier

E: Heir’s of the mother

If the deceased is a Muslim:

Muslim communities in India predominantly follow Hanafi law, but in some locations follow Shia law. The share of each heir must be ascertained based on individual cases.

If the deceased is a Christian or married under the Special Marriage Act (for inter-religious marriage):

Where lineal descendant is present:

Widow / widower – 1/3 of the property

Lineal descendants – equally to share 2/3.

In the absence of lineal descendant, to all grand children, - equally

In the absence of grandchildren, to great grant children – equally

Lineal descendant of a predeceased child or lineal descendant of a predeceased child of a predeceased child if present - division is based on equal shares, taking the predeceased child to be alive, and a downward distribution amongst the lineal descendants.

With no lineal descendant:

Widow /widower – 1/3

Father – balance entire

If Father is dead, to mother, to mother, sisters and brothers- equally

If father is dead, to mother, living sisters and brothers, and children of a predeceased sister or brother- equally so that one share to be taken for the predeceased sister or brother to pass through the lineal descendant to such predeceased.

If the deceased is a Parsi:

Widow / Widower

Children (equally)

Living parents-each to get a share equal to half of a child

Wife and children of a predeceased son to share the share of the child as if the son died after the death of the deceased. If the child predeceased is a daughter, her share would be equally distributed to her children.

Post Comment Comments  satya pal November 18, 2010 my father died with out writing a youngest brother also died.her widow is living i a house built by me on fathers deceased brother wants the third share in the brother never built any property.wife and husband were deceased brother wife still in govt service.i built the property in which they are living.i do not object even now they continue to younger brother(alive) and deceased brother and her only daughter has signed papers in court in my widow of my deceased wants that i should gift her the house which she never built.kindly tell me what are the legal rights of my brother's widow.i again the house in which they ARE LIVING WAS NEVER BUILT BY MY DECEASED BROTHER.HE WAS GETTNG ONLY RS 800/PM AS SALARY IN 1980,SO HE COULD NOT DREAM OF A HOUSE.SO I HELPED HIM.NOW HIS WIDOW AND DAUGHTER INSISTING THAT THIS PORTION THEY ARE LIVING SHALL BE GIFTED TO THEM.THEY HAVE THE INTENTION TO SELL,BECAUSE IT WILL FETCH RS 50 LACS IN MARKET.PL ADVISE THE LEGAL POSITION IN THIS REGARD
SATYA PAL R March 1, 2011 what if a muslim woman marries a non-muslim man, can she inherit her father's property?  Ubaidulla March 25, 2011 very good  a joseph innocent justin July 26, 2011 our family is a roman catholic family. my sisters husband was died on 10.10.09 without any will. i sister is having two minor children. now her mother in law is claiming share in my sisters husbands property. kindly guide us in this matter as per indian succession act or inheritance act  Mohan Birla September 16, 2011 One of my client's mother died leaving physical shares of a particular company without selecting nominees. The husband of client's mother has expired. The client are 2 brothers. How can they claim the ownership of the left shares by their mother. Sam Ahaja October 30, 2011 My wife has a sister and 2 brothers. Her father died sometime back leaving a will where a residential plot of land has been willed to her mother. Now the mother wants to give everything to only one son who is her favourite. Can my wife put a caveat on this land so it can not be sold unless all children get equal share?  SHAHEENA SAADAN December 29, 2011 We are Muslims and governed by Muslim Succession Law. We are four sisters and one brother. Our father expired in October 1998 and mother expired in March 2007. Our father left behind one residential complex, one commercial complex, substantial cash balance, shares and other household items utensils etc. Our late mother left behind gold ornaments worth around 25 tolas. Rental income from commercial complex is around Rs.5.00 lac per annum and for this purpose one partnership firm was formed with our father, three of our sisters and, brother as partners.
After the death of our father entire rental income was usurped by our brother in conspiracy with one of our sister who was the partner in the firm, and not accounted the same. Nor he has shown balance sheet of the firm. We are not sure whether he has unilaterally deleted our name as partner in the firm. He has also grabbed entire furniture utensils and gold ornaments of our late mother in conspiracy with this sister. Now we are demanding our shares in rental income cash balance left behind by our late father and 1/6 shares each in both residential and commercial complex. Our brother refused to meet our demands as legal heirs and resenting even our visits to our parental house.
What are our shares as legal heir? Can we approach court of law to enforce our inheritance rights and file criminal case including FIR in police station for misappropriation of cash and rental income since the death of our father.
 Nelson January 12, 2012 My father expired in 2003 he left some money,gold and 2 houses in mumbai as im workig in gulf my 2 elder sister are operating is account we are all togather 3 brothers and 3sisters and my mother .my father made no will in this case if i only want 2 houses for my security in future what should i do as my mother is occuping one room and one room my wife and son is staying .As i dont feel secured with my sisters what should i do with this 2 houses.I am roman catholic Addriene January 21, 2012 All of these airtlecs have saved me a lot of headaches. Addriene January 21, 2012 All of these airtlecs have saved me a lot of headaches. Spike January 24, 2012 I'm not easily impressed. . . but that's imprsesing me! :) Niraj March 17, 2012 Is there any protection from intentional disinheritance from property by parents for a adult child. I hear civil laws do that ie laws eg in France. Is such a thing in India ? Are civil laws being introduced in India?  kaushalya March 25, 2012 I am an american citizen. I came to U.S right after marriage at the age of 21. My father passed away in 2011. We are three brothers and our mother is still living. My father helped two of my brothers to buy a house. My brothers don't show me my father's will and tell me that my father didn't leave me anything. May be so but I want to see the will he signed. How would I go about getting a copy of my father's will?
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