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In Caelo - Songs for a Pilgrim People

Described as "a new hymnal from Veritas for the twenty-first century", this book was published in 1999 by Veritas Publications of Dublin, and edited by Liam Lawton.

There is a preface by Lawton, which acknowledges the assistance of the Veritas Editorial Board (Fr Séan Melody, Maura Hyland and Aideen Quigley) and Helen McGrath Sinéad Cunningham and Patricia Hegarty, and the support of Bishop Laurence Ryan of Kildare and Leighlin.

It includes:
  • 111 hymns and psalms in English, 
  • 28 in Irish, 
  • 8 in Latin, and 
  • 3 in some combinations of these.
There are no Mass parts or other service music, but there are a number of settings of the Psalms.   Some are more suitable for choirs, but many have at least some parts set for the congregation as well as cantor, soloist or choir.

The contents listing at the front is the book is an alphabetical listing by title.   At the end of the book is a set of copyright acknowledgements, ordered by song number, and a liturgical index with suggestions for each of
  • Mass functions (Entrance, Psalm settings, Presentation of the gifts, Communion, Recessional)
  • Special occasions (Funerals, Weddings)
  • Children
  • Sacraments (Penance, Confirmation, Baptism)
  • Interchuurch
  • Mary
  • Irish saints
  • Seasons (Advent, Christmas, Lent, Easter)
  • Pastoral care
  • Pilgrimage / heritage
  • Style (Taizé, Gregorian chant)


Cover design is by Bill Taylor.   Music setting and layout is by Top Type Music Bureau of Dublin, and printing is by Colour Books Ltd also of Dublin.

There are two editions:  the melody / people's edition is bound paperback, 152 pages, and size 20.8 x 15.2 x 2.2 cm - and it is what the contents listing below is based on.
ISBN13: 9781853904660
ISBN10: 185390466X

There is an accompanying spiral-bound A4-size organ edition.

The book is still in-print and copies are available from Veritas and also via Amazon.co.uk (UK and Ireland)  and Amazon.com (rest of the world).


About the contents listing

In the listing below, composer, author and copyright ownership are shown as they are recorded in the book, in accordance with this site's copyright policies.    This means that the copyright information is not necessarily correct today.

Detail  pages for some songs are linked from the titles, and more detail-pages will be added as time and copyright permissions allow..  They may include:
  • background information about the hymn, 
  • the full lyrics, 
  • downloadable PowerPoint slides of the words, 
  • sheet music (lead-sheet and/or guitar chords only), 
  • (links to) samples of the song.  

If you own the copyright to any of these carols, and would like to grant permission for items to be made available here, or to provide a link to sources where they are still available for sale, please contact us.


Table of Contents


Title (first-line) Number
A Athair dhìlis 1
A Athair dhilis an AonMhic
Lyrics: Tomás Ó Fiach © Not stated
Tune: Cathal Ó Ceallacháin © Not stated
Score: Melody line
Language: Irish
Number of verses: 3
A Dhia is a Athair 2
A Dhia is a Athair is ag triall or a thagaimid
Lyrics: Breandáin Ó Duibhlin and Baile an Fhertéaraigh © Thomas Egan
Tune: Thomas Egan © Thomas Egan
Score: Melody line
Language: Irish
Number of verses: 2
A Íosa 3
A Íosa, a Íosa / Nach bhfanfaidh sibh liom deir an Tiarna
Lyrics: Adapted from a traditional Irish prayer by Máire Ní Dhuibhir © Máire Ní Dhuibhir
Tune: Máire Ní Dhuibhir © Máire Ní Dhuibhir
Score: Melody line
Based on: Matthew 5
Language: Irish
Number of verses: 4
A Íosa Bháin 4
A Íosa bháín, id' láthair gheod / Ó a Shlánaitheoir
Lyrics: Adapted from a traditional Irish prayer by Séan Ó Riada © The estate of Séan Ó Riada
Tune: Seán Ó Riada (1931-1970) © Séan Ó Riada
Score: Melody line
Language: Irish
Number of verses: 2
A Íosa Glan mo Chroíse 5
Lyrics & tune: Traditional Irish
Score: Melody line
Language: Irish
Number of verses: 2
A Íosa Mhilis 6
A Íosa mhilis, A Íosa mhilis,
Lyrics & tune: Pat Ahern © Pat Ahern
Score: SATB lines
Language: Irish
Number of verses: 1
A New Hymn of Praise 7
A new hymn of praise let us sing / This is the day the Lord has made
Lyrics: J Moloney © Not stated
Tune: A Lesbordes © Not stated
Score: Melody line
Language: English
Number of verses: 3
Ag Críost an Síol 8
Ag Críost an síol, ag Chriost an fómhar
Lyrics: Traditional Irish - adapted by Séan Ó Riada © The estate of Séan Ó Riada
Tune: Séan Ó Riada © The estate of Séan Ó Riada
Score: Melody line
Language: Irish
Number of verses: 1
All Are Welcome 9
Let us buid a house where / All are welcome
Lyrics & tune: Marty Haugen (1950-) © GIA Publications Ltd, Chicago
Tune-name: TWIN OAKS
Score: Melody line
Language: English
Number of verses: 5
All I Once Held Dear (Knowing You)  10
All I once held dear, built my life upon / Knowing you Jesus
Lyrics & tune: Graham Kendrick © Make Way Musc, Surrey, England
Score: Melody line
Based on: Phil 3:7-11
Language: English
Number of verses: 3
All People that On Earth Do Dwell 11
Lyrics: Adapted by Anthony Petti from William Kethe (1593) © Faber Music Ltd, London
Tune: Louis Bourgeois (18510-1561)
Score: Melody line
Based on: Psalm 100
Language: English
Number of verses: 4
All the Ends of the Earth 99
All the ends of the earth have seen the power of God / Sing to the Lord a new song
Lyrics & tune: Adapted by David Haas and Marty Haugen © GIA Publications Ltd, Chicago
Score: Melody line
Based on: Psalm 98
Language: English
Number of verses: 4
Alleluia 12
Alleluia / Jesus is risen, he has saved his people
Lyrics & tune: Bernard Sexton © Irish Episcopal Commission on Catechetics
Score: Melody line
Language: English
Number of verses: 1
Alleluia! God Goes Up with Shouts of Joy 95
Alleluia, alleluia, alleluia. / All peoples clap your hands
Lyrics & tune: John O'Keeffe © John O'Keeffe
Tune-name: OMNES GENTES
Score: Melody line
Based on: Psalm 46
Language: English
Number of verses: 6
Alleluia, Sing! 13
Blessed be our God / Alleluia sing
Lyrics & tune: David Haas (1957-) © GIA Publications Ltd, Chicago
Score: Melody line
Language: English
Number of verses: 3
An tAiséirí 14
Sé Íosa an firéan ashaothraigh ár nanam
Lyrics & tune: Adaptedf from a traditional Irish work by Séan Óg Ó Tuama © The estate of Séan Óg Ó Tuama
Score: Melody line
Language: Irish
Number of verses: 1
Attende Domine 15
Ad te Rexsumme / Attende Domine et miserere
Lyrics: From an ancient Mozarabic litany
Tune: Plainchant - traditional
Score: Melody line
Language: Latin
Number of verses: 1
Away in a Manger 16
Away in a manger no crib for a bed
Lyrics & tune: William James Kirkpatrick (1838-1921)
Score: Melody line
Language: English
Number of verses: 3
Be Still 17
Be still for the presence of the Lord
Lyrics & tune: David Evans © Kingsway's Thank You Music
Score: Melody line
Language: English
Number of verses: 3
Be Thou My Vision 18
Be thou my vision, O Lord of my heart
Lyrics: Eleanor Hull (1860 -1935) and Mary E Byrne (1880-1931) © The estate of Eleanor Hull
Tune: Traditional
Tune-name: SLANE
Score: Melody line
Language: English
Number of verses: 4
Lyrics from "The Poem of the Gael"
Be With Me 98
Be with me Lord when I am in trouble / You who dwell in the shelter
Lyrics & tune: Marty Haugen (1950-) © GIA Publications Ltd, Chicago
Score: SATB
Based on: Psalm 91
Language: English
Number of verses: 3
Bi Íosa Im Chroíse 19
Bi Íosa im chroíse, 'sim' chuimhne gach udar,
Lyrics & tune: Traditional Irish
Score: Melody line
Language: Irish
Number of verses: 3
Canaig¡ Amhrán Nua Do'n Tiarna  20
Lyrics & tune: Tomás Ó Canainn © Tomás Ó Canainn
Score: Melody line
Based on: Psalm 97
Language: Irish
Number of verses: 3
Canticle of Simeon 21
Save us Lord wile we are awake / At last all powerful Master
Lyrics & tune: John McGann (1961-) © John McGann (1961-)
Score: Melody line
Language: English
Number of verses: 1
Text adapted from the English translation of the Breviary
Canticle of the Sun 22
The heavens are telling the glory of God / Sing of the sun, the bringer of day
Lyrics & tune: Marty Haugen (1950-) © GIA Publications Ltd, Chicago
Score: SATB lines
Language: English
Number of verses: 6
Céad Míle Fáilte Romhat 23
Lyrics: Traditional Irish
Tune: Traditional Irish © O'Carroll Publications
Score: Melody line
Language: Irish
Number of verses: 2
Céad Moladh Le Muire Bheannaithe 24
Lyrics: Traditional Irish - adapted by Séan Óg Ó Tuama © The estate of Séan Óg Ó Tuama
Tune: Séan Óg Ó Tuama (1912-1980) © The estate of Séan Óg Ó Tuama
Score: Melody line
Language: Irish
Number of verses: 2
Christ Be Beside Me 25
Christ be beside me, Christ be
Lyrics: Traditional Irish
Tune: Adapted from St Patrick's Breastplate" by James Quinn SJ (b 1919) © Not stated
Score: Melody line
Language: English
Number of verses: 3
Christ Be Our Light 26
Longing for light we wait in darkness / Christ be our light, shine in our hearts
Lyrics & tune: Bernadette Farrell © Bernadette Farrell
Score: Descant and melody line
Language: English
Number of verses: 5
Christ is My Light 27
Christ is my light, lights up my days / Fills me with hope, fills me with peace
Lyrics & tune: Peter Watcyn-Jones © Kevin Mayhew Ltd
Score: Melody line
Language: English
Number of verses: 3
Christmas Day is Come  28
Christmas Day is come let us prepare for mirth
Lyrics: Traditional Irish
Tune: Traditional Irish melody © Arrangement 1982 Noirín Ní Riaín
Score: Melody line
Language: English
Number of verses: 4
Text from Kilmore Quay, Co Waterford - 17th century
Clouds Veil, The 124
Bright the starts at night / Even though the clouds shield the stars
Lyrics: Liam Lawton © GIA Publications Ltd, Chicago
Tune: Liam Lawton © GIA Publications Ltd, Chicago
Score: SATB
Language: English
Number of verses: 3
Come and Fill This Temple  29
Come O come and fill this temple / There's a place of unity
Lyrics & tune: Arlene Friesen © Birdwing Music
Score: Melody line
Language: English
Number of verses: 2
Come Christians All Rejoice  30
Alleluia / Come Christians all rejoice
Lyrics: Anthony Petti © Faber Music Ltd
Tune: Not stated
Tune-name: O FILII ET FILIAE
Score: Melody line
Language: English
Number of verses: 7
Tune is from "Airs sur les Hymes Sacres, Odes et Noels", 1623
Come O Creator 31
Come O creator spirit blest
Lyrics: Edward Caswall (1814-78)
Tune: Samuel Webbe (1740-1836)
Tune-name: VENI CREATOR
Score: Melody line
Language: English
Number of verses: 4
Críost Liom 32
Críost Liom,Críost romham, Críost im dhaiadh
Lyrics & tune: Séan Ó Riada © The estate of Séan Ó Riada
Tune-name: LÚIREACH PHÁDRAIG
Score: Melody line
Language: Irish
Number of verses: 1
Darkest Midnight, The 125
The darkest midnight in December
Lyrics: Traditional Irish
Tune: Traditional Irish melody © Not stated
Score: Melody line
Language: English
Number of verses: 3
The text is from the 17th century, from Kilmore Quay, Co Wexford
Deers Cry, The 126
I arise today through the strength of heaven
Lyrics: Traditional Irish prayer
Tune: Shaun Davey © Shaun Davey Music
Score: SATB and solo
Language: English
Number of verses: 1
Deus Meus Adiuva Me 33
Lyrics: Séan Óg Ó Tuama © The estate of Séan Óg Ó Tuama
Tune: Séan Óg Ó Tuama © The estate of Séan Óg Ó Tuama and Daniel McNulty
Score: Melody line
Language: Irish / Latin
Number of verses: 4
Do This in Memory 34
Sing, Sing to Jesus / Take bread and wine, blessed and broken
Lyrics & tune: Cyril Murphy © Irish Espiscopal Commission on Catechetics
Score: Descant and melody line
Language: English
Number of verses: 2
Dóchas Linn Naomh Padraig 35
Lyrics & tune: Traditional Irish
Score: Melody line
Language: Irish
Number of verses: 2
Dominican Magnificat  36
To praise, my soul rejoices in God / Magnificant, magnificat
Lyrics & tune: Feargal King © Feargal King / Kingsway Music
Score: SAB and Melody lines
Based on: Luke 1:46-55
Language: Latin and English
Number of verses: 3
Adapted from the Dominican motto "Laudare, Benedicare, Praedicare" - To Praise, to Bless, to Preach
Don Oíche Üd I mBeithil 37
Lyrics & tune: Séan Óg Ó Tuama © The estate of Séan Óg Ó Tuama
Score: Melody line
Language: Irish
Number of verses: 2
Tune and lyrics adapted from a traditional Irish work
Eat This Bread 38
Eat this bread, drink this cup / Christ is the bread of life
Lyrics & tune: Robert J Batastini and the Taizé Community © Ateliers et Presses de Taizé
Score: SATB
Based on: John 6
Language: English
Number of verses: 4
Even in the Darkness You Are Near 39
Even in the darkness you are near / O Lord you search me and you know me
Lyrics: Response: Ian Matthew © Not stated
Tune: Ronan McDonagh © Ronan McDonagh
Score: Melody line
Based on: Psalm 138
Language: English
Number of verses: 5
From the Mass of St John of the Cross
Ever, Evermore, Everlastingly  40
Ever, Evermore, Everlastingly  / God be with us on this day
Lyrics & tune: Micheál Ó Suilleabháin © Eye Music, Ireland
Score: Melody line
Language: English
Number of verses: 16
From the Mass "Miss Gadelica" commissioned by the Irish Christian Brothers in 1994 to mark the 150th anniversary of the death of their founder
Faoi mar a shantaionn an eilit na sruthanna uisce 94
Santaíonn m'a nam thusa a Dhia / Faoi mar a shantaionn an eilit na sruthanna uisce
Lyrics & tune: Veronica Ní Chinnéide © Veronica Ní Chinnéide
Score: Melody line
Based on: Psalm 42 and 43
Language: Irish
Number of verses: 6
Fíilte an Linbh 41
Céad fáilte momhat a Linbh / Dia do bheatha idir asal is clamh gan riar
Lyrics & tune: Pat Ahern © Pat Ahern
Score: SATB and melody line
Language: Irish
Number of verses: 1
For Ever I Will Sing 97
Forever I will sing of the goodness of the Lord / I have found David my servant
Lyrics & tune: Marty Haugen (1950-) © GIA Publications Ltd, Chicago
Score: Melody line
Based on: Psalm 89
Language: English
Number of verses: 3
From Heaven You Came (The Servant King) 42
From heaven you came / This is our God, the servant king
Lyrics & tune: Graham Kendrick © Kingsway's Thank You Music
Score: Melody line
Based on: Isaiah 53, Matthew 20, 26 et al
Language: English
Number of verses: 4
Gabham Molta Bhríde 43
Lyrics & tune: Séan Óg Ó Tuama © The estate of Séan Óg Ó Tuama
Score: Melody line
Language: Irish
Number of verses: 3
God of Day and God of Darkness 44
God of day and god of darkness
Lyrics: Marty Haugen (1950-) © GIA Publications Ltd, Chicago
Tune: From "The Sacred Harp" 1844 © Harmony: GIA Publications
Tune-name: BEACH SPRING
Score: Melody line
Language: English
Number of verses: 3
God of Mercy and Compassion 45
God of mercy and compassion look with pity upon me
Lyrics: Michael Hodgetts © Michael Hodgetts
Tune: Traditional French
Tune-name: AU SANG QU'UN DIEU
Score: Melody line
Language: English
Number of verses: 3
Text adapted from the Lenten Hymn by Edward Vaughas (1827-1908)
Gods Blessing Sends Us Forth 46
God's blessing sends us forth strengthened for our task on earth
Lyrics: Omer Westendord © World Library Publications
Tune: Schonster Herr Jesus: schlesiche Volkisleder © Not stated
Score: Melody line
Language: English
Number of verses: 4
Hail Mary, Mother of God 47
Hail Mary, mother of God / Daughter of God's love, highly favoured
Lyrics & tune: John McGann (1961-) © John McGann (1961-)
Score: Melody line
Language: English
Number of verses: 5
Hail Queen of Heaven 48
Hail queen of heaven the ocean star
Lyrics: John Lingard (1717-1851)
Tune: H F Hemy
Tune-name: SALVE REGINA
Score: Melody line
Language: English
Number of verses: 2
Healer of My Soul 49
Healer of my soul, keep me at even
Lyrics & tune: John Michael Talbot © Birdwing Music
Score: Melody line
Language: English
Number of verses: 2
Hiding Place 50
I will search in the silence / Where can I discover the wellspring
Lyrics & tune: Liam Lawton © GIA Publications Ltd, Chicago
Score: Descant and melody line
Based on: Psalm 17
Language: English
Number of verses: 3
Holy Gifts 51
Holy gifts for holy people / This is what we have been told
Lyrics & tune: Stephen Dean (1948-) © Stephen Dean (1948-)
Score: Descant and melody line
Language: English
Number of verses: 3
Holy God We Praise Thy Name 52
Lyrics: Clarence A Walworth (1820-1900)
Tune: Not stated
Score: Melody line
Language: English
Number of verses: 3
Text from "Te Deum Iaudamus", ca 3rd century "Grosser Got, wir lobe dich", translated by Ignaz Franz (1719-1790)
Holy Spirit Lord of Light 53
Holy spirit, Lord of light, from the clear celestial height
Lyrics: From the liturgy: The Sequqnce for Pentecost © Not stated
Tune: John McGann (1961-) © GIA Publications Ltd, Chicago
Score: Melody line
Language: English
Number of verses: 5
Holy Spirit, Lord of Love  54
Holy spirit, Lord of love, wisdom coming from above
Lyrics & tune: Traditional Irish © GIA Publications Ltd, Chicago
Tune-name: MISNEACH
Score: Melody line
Language: English
Number of verses: 2
Hosanna 55
Hosanna, hosanna / Blessed is He, blessed is He who comes in the name of the Lord
Lyrics & tune: David Haas (1957-) © GIA Publications Ltd, Chicago
Score: Melody line
Based on: Mark 11:9-10
Language: English
Number of verses: 2
I Thirst For You 56
As a deer craves for running water / Send your light and truth
Lyrics: Not stated © GIA Publications Ltd, Chicago
Tune: Traditional Irish © GIA Publications Ltd, Chicago
Score: Descant and melody line
Based on: Psalm 42 / 43
Language: English
Number of verses: 3
I Will be the Vine 57
I will be the vine / Remain in me as I remain in you
Lyrics: Liam Lawton © GIA Publications Ltd, Chicago
Tune: Liam Lawton © GIA Publications Ltd, Chicago
Score: SATB
Language: English
Number of verses: 2 and bridge
I Will Glorify the Lord 58
My soul glorifies the Lord my God / I will glorify the Lord
Lyrics: Liam Lawton © GIA Publications Ltd, Chicago
Tune: Liam Lawton © GIA Publications Ltd, Chicago
Score: Solo plus SATB
Language: English
Number of verses: 3
Immaculate Mary 59
Immaculate Mary our hearts are on fire / Ave, ave, ave Maria
Lyrics: Anonymous © Not stated
Tune: Traditional French © Arrangement McCrimmon Publishing Ltd
Tune-name: MASSABIELLE (LOURDES HYMN)
Score: Melody line
Language: English
Number of verses: 5
In You Creation Finds Its Joy 96
In you creation finds its joy / To you our praise is due in Zion O God
Lyrics & tune: Ronan McDonagh © Ronan McDonagh
Score: Melody line
Based on: Psalm 64
Language: English
Number of verses: 5
Response inspired by 'The Spiritual Canticle' - from the Mass of St John of the Cross
Is Beannaithe Teach Dé 60
Is beannaithe teach Dé, is beannaimid féin dó
Lyrics: Traditional Irish - adapted by Seán Ó Riada © The estate of Seán Ó Riada
Tune: Seán Ó Riada (1931-1970) © The estate of Seán Ó Riada
Score: Melody line
Language: Irish
Number of verses: 1
Jesus Be With Us Now 61
We come before you with all we have / Broken, your people
Lyrics & tune: David Haas (1957-) © GIA Publications Ltd, Chicago
Score: SATB and descant
Language: English
Number of verses: 5
Jesus Christ is Risen Today 62
Jesus Christ is risen today, alleluia
Lyrics: From the Lyra Davidica (1708)
Tune: J Arnold (1753) - based on a tune from the Lyra Davidica (1708)
Tune-name: EASTER HYMN
Score: Melody line
Language: English
Number of verses: 3
Jesus Christ Yesterday, Today and Forever 63
Jesus Christ, Jesus Christ, yesterday, today and forever
Lyrics & tune: Suzanne Toolan © GIA Publications Ltd, Chicago
Score: SATB
Language: English
Number of verses: 4
Jesus, Food for Our Hunger 64
Jesus food for our hunger, bread of life / I am the bread of life
Lyrics & tune: Ian Callanan (1971-) © Ian Callanan and Maelruain Publications
Score: Melody line
Based on: John 6:35
Language: English
Number of verses: 3
King of Love, The 127
The king of love, my shepherd is
Lyrics: Henry William Baker(1821-77), adapted by Anthony G Petti © Faber Music
Tune: Unknown
Score: Melody line
Based on: Psalm 23
Language: English
Number of verses: 6
Laudate omnes gentes 65
Lyrics: Not stated
Tune: Jacques Berthier © Ateliers et Presses de Taizé
Score: Melody line
Based on: Psalm 117
Language: Latin
Number of verses: 1
Let the Peoples Praise You 66
Let the peoples praise You of Lord / Shout with joy, all earth, to the Lord
Lyrics & tune: John McGann (1961-) © GIA Publications Ltd, Chicago
Score: SATB
Based on: Psalm 100
Language: English
Number of verses: 5
Lord Accept the Gifts We Offer 67
Lyrics: Sister M Teresine © Not stated
Tune: Samuel Webbe (1740-1836)
Score: Melody line
Language: English
Number of verses: 3
Lord is My Light, The 128
The Lord is my light, the Lord is my help / The Lord is my light
Lyrics & tune: Christopher Walker (1947-) © GIA Publications Ltd, Chicago
Score: Melody line
Based on: Psalm 27
Language: English
Number of verses: 3
Lord of all Hopefulness 68
Lord of all Hopefulness, Lord of all joy
Lyrics: Jan Struther (1901-1953) © Oxford University Press
Tune: Traditional
Score: Melody line
Language: English
Number of verses: 4
Lord's My Shepherd, The 130
The Lord's my shepherd, I'll not want
Lyrics: Unknown - from the Scottish Psalter, 1650
Tune: Jessie Irvine (1836-1887)
Tune-name: CRIMMOND
Score: Melody line
Based on: Psalm 22 (23)
Language: English
Number of verses: 5
Love is His Word 69
Love is his word, love is his way / Richer than gold
Lyrics: Luke Connaghton (1919-1979) © McCrimmon Publishing Co Ltd
Tune: Anthony Milner © McCrimmon Publishing Co Ltd
Score: Melody line
Language: English
Number of verses: 7
Love of God is Fiery Blaze, The 131
The love of God is fiery blaze / The Cross of Christ it speaks to me
Lyrics: Pamela Stotter © Pamela Stotter
Tune: Ronan McDonagh © Ronan McDonagh
Score: Melody line
Language: English
Number of verses: 4
The text is based on "Song of the Soul in Intimate Communicatin and Union with the Love of God' by St John of the Cross
Lumen Christi 70
Lumen Christi , alleluia, amen / I am the light of the world
Lyrics: Verses: MD. Refrain: Jean Paul Lécot © Bill Tamblin
Tune: Jean Paul Lécot © Bill Talblin
Score: Melody line
Language: Latin and English
Number of verses: 3
Lux Eterna 71
Lux eterna,Luceat eis Domine
Lyrics: From the Gregorian requiem
Tune: Shaun Davey © Shaun Davey, Co Wicklow, Ireland
Score: Melody line
Language: Latin
Number of verses: 1
Mary Our Mother 72
Mary our Mother the Lord is with you / Angel Gabriel said to you
Lyrics & tune: Patricia Hegarty © Irish Episcopal Commission on Catechetics
Score: Melody line
Language: English
Number of verses: 5
Based on the Joyful Mysteries of the Rosary
May God Bless Us 73
May God bless us, hold and keep us
Lyrics & tune: Ephrem Feeley © Ephrem Feeley (1974-)
Score: Descant and melody line
Language: English
Number of verses: 4
Text based on "The Solemn Blessing"
My God Accept My Heart This Day 74
Lyrics: Matthew Bridges (1800-1894)
Tune: From W Gardner's Sacred Melodies, 1812, in Islington Psalmody (1854)
Tune-name: BELMONT
Score: Melody line
Language: English
Number of verses: 4
Na hOcht Beíití 75
Sancti venite, sancti venite / Sméanar dóibh atábocht
Lyrics & tune: Máire Ní Dhuibhir (1951-) © Máire Ní Dhuibhir (1951-)
Score: Melody line
Based on: Matthew 5:3-12
Language: Irish
Number of verses: 1
Now Thank We All Our God 76
Now thank we all our God, with hearts and minds and voices
Lyrics: Catherine Winkworth (1827-1878)
Tune: From Johann Cruger's Praxis Pietatis Melica (1647)
Tune-name: NUN DANKET
Score: Melody line
Language: English
Number of verses: 3
Translated from a work by Martin Rinkart (1586-1649)
Now the Green Blade Rises 77
Lyrics: John M C Crum (1872-1958) © Oxford University Press
Tune: French carol - author not stated
Tune-name: NOEL NOUVELET
Score: Melody line
Language: English
Number of verses: 4
Now We Remain 78
We hold the death of our Lord deep in our hearts / Once we were people afraid
Lyrics & tune: David Haas (1957-) © GIA Publications Ltd, Chicago
Score: SATB
Based on: Corinthians, 1 John, 2 Timothy
Language: English
Number of verses: 4
O Blessed Are Those Who Fear the Lord 79
O blessed are those who fear the Lord and walk in his ways / O blessed are those who fear the Lord
Lyrics & tune: Bernard Sexton © Bernard Sexton
Score: Melody line
Based on: Psalm 27
Language: English
Number of verses: 3
O Comfort My People 80
O comfort my people and calm all their fears
Lyrics: Chrysogonous Waddell OCSO © Not stated
Tune: Traditional Irish melody
Tune-name: BÍ ÍOSA IM CHROÍSE
Score: Melody line
Based on: Isaiah 40
Language: English
Number of verses: 3
O God, You Search Me 81
O God you search me and you know me
Lyrics & tune: Bernadette Farrell © Bernadette Farrell
Score: SATB
Based on: Psalm 139
Language: English
Number of verses: 5
O Mary of Graces 82
O Mary of graces and mother of Christ
Lyrics: Traditional Irish
Tune: Traditional Irish melody © Accompaniment - Michael Dawney
Score: Melody line
Language: English
Number of verses: 2
O Praise Ye The Lord 83
O praise ye the Lord, praise him in the height
Lyrics: Henry Williams Baker (1821-1877)
Tune: Hubert H Parry (1848-1918)
Tune-name: LAUDATE DOMINUM
Score: Melody line
Based on: Psalm 148, Psalm 150
Language: English
Number of verses: 4
O Sacred Head Surrounded 84
O sacred head surrounded by crown of piercing thorns
Lyrics: Henry Williams Baker (1821-1877)
Tune: Hans Leo Hassler (1564-1612)
Tune-name: PASSION CHORALE
Score: Melody line
Language: English
Number of verses: 2
On Eagles Wings 85
You who dwell in the shelter / And I will raise you up on eagles wings
Lyrics & tune: Michael Joncas © New Dawn Music, Portland Oregon
Score: Melody line
Based on: Psalm 91
Language: English
Number of verses: 4
Out of Darkness 86
Out of darkness the light of Christ / Let the darkness flee from here
Lyrics & tune: Tom Kendzia © Tom Kendzia, publihsed by OCP Publications
Score: SATB
Language: English
Number of verses: 3
Paidir na Trionoide 87
Síóth Athair an Aidh
Lyrics & tune: Liam Lawton © Liam Lawton, Carlow
Score: SATB
Language: Irish
Number of verses: 1
Pierced Saviour 88
Pierced saviour, pierced saviour, hanging on a tree so bare
Lyrics & tune: Sue Furlong © Sue Furlong, used by permission of O'Carroll Publications
Score: SATB
Language: English
Number of verses: 3
Praise the Lord, All You Nations  89
Praise the Lord all you nations / O sing a new song to the Lord
Lyrics & tune: Fintan O'Carroll (1922-1981) © O'Carroll Publications
Score: SATB
Based on: Psalm 116, Psalm 95
Language: English
Number of verses: 3
Prayer of Peace 90
Peace before us / Let all around us be peace
Lyrics & tune: David Haas (1957-) © GIA Publications Ltd, Chicago
Score: Descant and melody line
Language: English
Number of verses: 6
Based on a Navaho Indian prayer
Regina Caeli 101
Regina caeli, laetare, alleluia
Lyrics: Anonymous
Tune: Traditional plainchant


Analysing the impact of enterprise resource planning systems roll-outs in multi-national companies

Article · December 2003with650 ReadsAbstractLarge organisations, in particular multi-national corporations, have been at the forefront of the ERP movement since its origins. They have used these highly integrated systems as a way to achieve greater levels of standardisation of business processes across sites and greater centralisation of IT resources. The most common scenario for an ERP implementation in a large multi-national firm is the phased roll-out, whereby the modules of the application are implemented in all the sites in a series of waves. A standard implementation, as designed by Headquarters, is replicated in each site. This standard implementation uses a base configuration, sometimes referred to as a template or blueprint, which cannot be deviated from in any of the sites. These monolithic implementations can be quite traumatic for individual sites where local practices, sometimes quite well established and rich in organizational learning, must be abandoned. This may lead to large scale organisational problems, which must be ironed out if the full potential of the enterprise-wide system is to be obtained. In an attempt to tease out the issues in the global implementation of ERP systems, we carried out a number of case studies at Irish manufacturing sites of multinational firms where management sought ways to defend their hard won local reputation for excellence and efficiency in the face of changes to the organisation due to a corporate ERP implementation. Our study indicates that local managers are given too little scope and time to adequately adapt the template to their site and that the risk of productivity loss is quite high, at least in the short term. We conclude that mechanisms must be put in place to better understand how to accommodate local specificities whilst enforcing the required level of standardisation.

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Join for free www.ejise.com ©Academic Conferences Limited Analysing the Impact of Enterprise Resource Planning Systems Roll-outs in Multi-National Companies Fergal Carton and Frederic Adam University College Cork, Ireland f.carton@ucc.ie fadam@afis.ucc.ie Abstract: Large organisations, in particular multi-national corporations, have been at the forefront of the ERP movement since its origins. They have used these highly integrated systems as a way to achieve greater levels of standardisation of business processes across sites and greater centralisation of IT resources. The most common scenario for an ERP implementation in a large multi-national firm is the phased roll-out, whereby the modules of the application are implemented in all the sites in a series of waves. A standard implementation, as designed by Headquarters, is replicated in each site. This standard implementation uses a base configuration, sometimes referred to as a template or blueprint, which cannot be deviated from in any of the sites. These monolithic implementations can be quite traumatic for individual sites where local practices, sometimes quite well established and rich in organizational learning, must be abandoned. This may lead to large scale organisational problems, which must be ironed out if the full potential of the enterprise-wide system is to be obtained. In an attempt to tease out the issues in the global implementation of ERP systems, we carried out a number of case studies at Irish manufacturing sites of multinational firms where management sought ways to defend their hard won local reputation for excellence and efficiency in the face of changes to the organisation due to a corporate ERP implementation. Our study indicates that local managers are given too little scope and time to adequately adapt the template to their site and that the risk of productivity loss is quite high, at least in the short term. We conclude that mechanisms must be put in place to better understand how to accommodate local specificities whilst enforcing the required level of standardisation. Keywords: ERP, Multi-national firms, IT strategy, Roll-out, IS implementation. 1. Introduction There are two schools of thought concerning the origins of ERP software (Adam and Sammon, 2004). One route to ERP came from engineering and the desire to control inventory, the other from finance and the desire to control expenditure. Closer attention to excess inventory and efficient use of raw materials led to the Material Requirements Planning (MRP) approach to planning, promoted strongly by the American Production and Inventory Control Society (APICS) during the 70’s. Orlicky (1975) has described how managers and researchers came to realise that a computer enabled the detailed application of the MRP technique by actors on the factory floor. MRP software was developed as a computerised approach for the planning of materials acquisition and production. As the use of these applications became more widespread, the software was extended allow the planning module to be updated with feedback from the execution cycle (closed loop MRP). So closed loop MRP, together with some financial modules, developed into an integrated approach to the management of manufacturing resources, termed Manufacturing Resource Planning (MRP II). In parallel, companies had been looking at methods to standardise and consolidate financial information to produce monthly operating statements and balance sheets. The reason that Finance is considered as the “first point of entry” for information systems is that this function is already standardised in terms of its data collection and analysis methods (Muller,1992). Indeed, Besson (1999) discusses how ERP implementations affect the value system in an organisation such that industrial experience, such as product knowledge, manufacturing know-how etc. is usurped by the obsession with low-level operational cost data required by “Finance’s Trojan Horse”. 2. ERP systems defined From a technical point of view, ERP systems are based on a client / server architecture providing support to integrated business processes across organisational functions. Stefanou (2000) defines ERP software as a set of customisable and highly integrative real time business application software modules sharing a common database, which support core business, production and administrative functions, such as logistics, manufacturing, sales, distribution, finance and accounting. Another definition was proposed by Sammon and Adam (2000) who have said: Electronic Journal of Information Systems Evaluation Volume 6 Issue 2 (2003) 21-32 www.ejise.com ©Academic Conferences Limited 22 “ERP systems are integrated enterprise-wide software packages that use a modular structure to support a broad spectrum of key operational areas of the organization”. ERPs provide a transactional backbone to the organization that allows the capture of basic cost and revenue related movements of inventory. In so doing, ERP systems afford better access to management information concerning business activity, showing actual sales and cost of sales in a real-time fashion. Kalakota and Robinson (1999) stress that the popularity of ERP systems has stemmed from the fact that they appear to solve the challenges posed by portfolios of “disconnected, uncoordinated applications that have outlived their usefulness”. Holland et al. (1999a) agree, stating that one of the major reasons for the shift towards ERP packages is the need to deal with legacy systems. ERPs are designed for multi-site, multi-national companies, which require the ability to integrate business information, manage resources, accommodate diverse business practices and processes across the entire organization. Wood and Caldas (1999) found in their survey of 40 organisations having implemented ERP that the main reason to implement ERP was the need to “integrate the organizations processes and information”. Davenport (1998) stated that large companies collect, generate and store vast quantities of data which is “spread across dozens or even hundreds of separate computer systems, each housed in an individual function, business unit, region, factory or office”. These localized legacy systems have a huge impact on business productivity due to the workload of re-keying, reformatting, updating, debugging, etc. When management is relying on information from incompatible systems to make decisions, instinct becomes more important than sound business rationale. More generally, the growth in popularity of ERP systems can also be linked to an increasing business trend towards globalization, mergers and acquisitions. To be successful, a global company must be able to control and co-ordinate their various remote operating units. Accurate, real-time information provided by an ERP system has the ability to integrate the more remote subsidiaries into corporate practice because an ERP system allows the sharing of information in standard format across departments, currencies, languages and national borders. Thus, ERP systems can be used to provide a “common language” between units (Bingi et al., 1999; Horwitt, 1998). Some of the benefits achieved by companies looking to harness the tight global co-ordination afforded by ERP systems are :  Streamlining global financial and administrative processes  Global lean production model Rapid shifting of sourcing, manufacturing, and distribution functions worldwide in response to changing patterns in supply and demand or to changing local cost bases  Minimise excess manufacturing capacity Reduce component and finished goods inventory Davenport (1998) describes how Owens Corning, for example, adopted ES to replace 211 legacy systems. For the company to grow internationally, it was critical to co-ordinate order-management, financial reporting, and supply chain processes across the world. Having implemented the system and established a new global procurement organisation, the company is now able to enter into larger more advantageous international contracts for supplies. Finished goods inventory can be tracked daily, both in company warehouses and in the distribution channel, and spare parts inventory has been reduced by 50%. The company expects to save $65 million as a result of the adoption of these globally coordinated processes. 3. Difficulties in implementing ERP In order to achieve the integration of all the basic units of the business transaction, ERP systems rely on large central relational databases. This architecture represents a return to the centralised control model of the 60’s and 70’s, where access to computing resources and data was very much controlled by centralised IT departments. Therefore, ERP implementations are an inherent part of a general phenomenon of centralisation of control of large businesses back to a central corporate focal point. The resulting standardisation in business processes allows companies to treat demand and supply from a global perspective, consolidate corporate information resources under one roof, shorten execution time, lower costs in supply chains, reduce stock levels, improve on-time delivery and improve visibility Fergal Carton & Frederic Adam www.ejise.com ©Academic Conferences Limited 23of product assortment with respect to customer demand. The technical risk associated with the ERP implementation is lower than that experienced in the development of bespoke systems (Holland et al., 1999b; Martin, 1998), but critical business-related difficulties remain (Davenport, 1998). The main implementation risks associated with ERP projects are related to change management and the business reengineering that results from switching to the ERP software’s underlying business model (Holland et al., 1999b). Unsurprisingly, the main benefits of ERP implementation are derived from solving these business problems. Thus, although sometimes seen as large information systems projects, ERP projects are in fact change management projects where basic business practice will change to align with the “best practice” as defined in the ERP business processes. Staehr, Shanks & Seddon (2004) highlight the danger of not critically examining existing business processes, quoting a logisitcs manager involved in a SAP implementation as saying “if the process was wrong, all that SAP enabled us to do is do the wrong things quicker”. On the other hand, adapting business processes to a global template does not necessarily yield the same benefits across the local subsidiaries of a multinational. Butler (2004) quotes a case where the global visibility of demand as afforded by a single instance ERP system does not take into account fluctuations in local demand (eg. high levels of inventory maintained due to local agreement with customers). Hence some plants might not compare favourably with others serving different customer groupings. ERP systems are also frequently vaunted by over-zealous vendors for contributing to competitive advantage, company performance and even shareholder value. Fundamentally however, ERP systems are simply the tools for recording and managing all costs and revenue items within the enterprise, be they associated with product, people or cash. With a structure in place to record this level of detail for an enterprise, ERP systems when implemented are notoriously weak in providing reporting adapted to the needs of the business managers. This is frequently due to the fact that the huge effort required in implementing the basic functionality left little room to look at the post go-live reporting requirements. Also, although the core system contains all the transactional information required to manage the business activity, managers can’t run reports off the live system as they impact on core system performance and therefore slow down response times for other users. Secondly, information hungry ERP systems require more data than non-integrated legacy applications, therefore extra resource is required to manage data (a process engineer complained that there was no IS support available 18 months after go-live because they were occupied with data maintenance tasks). So business managers, having implemented an ERP system to help understand the company’s cost base, margins and profitability, are still short on reports and information that will help them to measure and interpret company value. In short, they have the tools in place to manage the data generated by the different tasks and processes that make up organisational activity. This is a pre-requisite for being able to answer the question “are we doing things efficiently”. What ERP systems cannot answer, however, is “are we doing things effectively”. One of the fundamental questions in this research is whether changing the organisation to incorporate “best practice” as epitomised in ERP processes does actually impact the effectiveness or value of the business. Thus, for many organisations, the real challenge of ERP implementations is not the introduction of new systems, but the fact that they imply “instilling discipline into undisciplined organisations” (Ross, 1998). In that study, one of the firm’s Vice Presidents is quoted as saying: It is very hard for people to change from things they know well and are good at. We find that people who were most effective in the old environment were those who knew how to “beat the system”. With SAP beating the system is not good; what’s good now is discipline. These people have a lot of unlearning to do and it’s painful. Because they are modular, ERP systems allow some degree of customization (ie. selection of modules best suited to the business’s activities). However the system’s complexity makes major modifications impracticable. The very integration afforded by the interdependencies of data within the different modules of the system mean that changes in configuration can have huge knock-on affects Electronic Journal of Information Systems Evaluation Volume 6 Issue 2 (2003) 21-32 www.ejise.com ©Academic Conferences Limited 24 throughout the system. Vendors would insist that the more customized an enterprise system becomes, apart from the time and cost impact to the project, the less able it will be to communicate seamlessly with the systems of suppliers and customers. A configuration table enables a company to tailor a particular aspect of the system to the way it chooses to do business. An organization can select, for example, the functional currency for a particular operating unit or whether it wants to recognize product revenue by geographic unit, product line or distribution channel. SAP’s R/3, for example, has more than 3,000 configuration tables. The set-up of the Accounts Receivable module of Oracle involves over 50 configuration screens. This complexity often results in extravagant costs in making any modification to the software, however minor the change may seem. 4. Impacts of ERP on the organisation Much of today’s research in the area of organisational learning and knowledge management deals with the difficulties of creating and harnessing the value inherent in employees know-how and ways of doing business. This begs the question as to why so many companies are willing to throw out what they have learned in favour of practices they know nothing about. And, when they do so, what evidence is there to suggest that companies do achieve their stated aims of improved efficiency by adopting these industry best practices? Indeed, no organisation plans to “brutalise” its personnel by implementing a Big Brother style control systems that don’t let a single expenditure go unnoticed. However, it is clear that there is little to prepare employees for the changes in the organisation of their day to day work and sources of support. Davenport (1998) showed the paradoxical impact of ERP on companys’ organisation and culture. On the one hand, by providing universal, real-time access to operating and financial data, ERPs allow companies to streamline their management structures, creating flatter, more flexible, and more democratic organisations. On the other hand they also involve the centralisation of control over information and the standardisation of processes, which are qualities more consistent with hierarchical, command and control organisations with uniform cultures. From a business perspective, information that was tracked manually or not at all will now have to be recorded religiously in the system in order for automatic triggers to process transactions and move on to the next stage in the process. A de-humanising element is present where information demands now come from the system rather than a colleague. The give and take of corporate relationships is replaced by the all ungrateful and information hungry system. Davenport (1998) asks, for a multinational, how much uniformity should exist in the way it does business in different regions or countries? For most companies, differences in regional markets remain so profound that strict process uniformity may actually be counterproductive. Companies must remain flexible and allow regional units to tailor their operations to local customer requirements and regulatory structures. Davenport recommends a type of federalist systems where different versions of the same system are rolled out to each regional unit, e.g. Monsanto, Hewlett-Packard and Nescafe have found this approach successful. This raises its own problems for the company, i.e. deciding on what aspects of the system need to uniform and what aspects can be allowed to vary (Horwitt 1998). In Europe, ERP projects are more complex than in North America, because of diverse national cultures, which influence organisational culture and make successful implementations of multinational ERP solutions difficult. Thus, failure to adapt packages to fit the national culture leads to projects, which are expensive and late (Krumbholz 2001). Also, users can no longer hide behind their mistakes (Staehr, Shanks, Seddon, 2004), forcing new visibility and accountability. Thus, multi-nationals face a choice between using their ERP as a standardisation tool or preserving (rather tolerating) some degree of local independence in software terms (Davenport, 1998). Most local subsidiaries do not have a say in the decision to implement ERP, so it is usual that the global solution lacks some capability to deal with the local requirements. This notion of global vs. local requirements is a recurring theme in the research. Our study seeks to understand the essential trade-off of centralised control against local autonomy, and what this means for the competitive advantage of the local organisation. Fergal Carton & Frederic Adam www.ejise.com ©Academic Conferences Limited 25Ward & Griffiths (1996) look at the models that have been used to present these conflicting forces of control and flexibility (in the context of IS planning), and within which organisations must attempt to steer the best path. They discuss various approaches to IT planning, including the Infusion / Diffusion model proposed by Sullivan (1985). Using this model, which was intended to demonstrate the different approaches to IT planning, we can depict the evolution of the use of information systems in the organisation. In particular, ERP systems may be depicted as a function of the drive to integrate ever greater business functionality and the drive to control the means of delivery of this functionality. High “Opportunistic” “Complex” “Backbone”“Traditional”Low High Infusion degree of dependence ofthe business on IS/ITDiffusion degree ofdecentralisation ofIS/IT control in the organisationInternal Organisational Pressures demanding further distribution of IS/IT control organisationExternal Competitive Pressures increasing the criticality of IS/IT tothe businessERP Figure 1: Environments of IS / IT planning (Sullivan, 1985) in Ward & Griffiths (1996) Firstly, infusion is the degree to which an organisation becomes dependent on IS/IT to carry out its core operations and manage the business. Diffusion, on the other hand, is defined as the degree to which IT has become dispersed throughout the organisation and decisions concerning its use are decentralised. These axes reflect the “opposing” forces of automation in industry : 1. creating advantage from tools by working with them close to the point of application (possibly inventing new and unforeseen uses of tools depending on immediate business need) : this emphasises the notion of effectiveness 2. keeping control of resources and skills so that the benefits of automation can be shared throughout the organisation : this emphasises the notion of efficiency ERP is considered low diffusion because it is by nature a centralising force in the organisation, often chosen to consolidate disparate legacy systems and standardise across variations in business practice. It is high infusion because it has the effect of spreading the threads of integration across the business functions. The model is useful as it allows us to portray the balance between the 2 elements of any business process automation, the organisation (real) and the information (virtual). Humphries & Jimenez (2003) adds to this a third dimension, which is how real-time the information needs to be, arguing that the requirement to operate the virtual enterprise at, or near, real-time will continue to grow. 5. Research design The objective of this research is to examine the positive and negative effects of ERP implementations on multi-national subsidiaries, and how organisations can plan to protect local competitive advantage from the “steam-rolling” effect of adopting standard business processes. The first question concerns gaining an understanding of how multi-national subsidiaries see themselves in the corporate context, and how they formulate and defend their own unique competitive advantages in the global organisation. The second question concerns the impact that ERP implementations have on this unique competitive advantage. Electronic Journal of Information Systems Evaluation Volume 6 Issue 2 (2003) 21-32 www.ejise.com ©Academic Conferences Limited 26 The third question looks at the impact of ERP implementations on the local organisation. ERP systems change the tools people use to do their jobs, their responsibilities and the relationships with colleagues. This study seeks to demonstrate the longer term effect of implementing ERP on the company. Following the concept of “purposeful selection” as described by Patton (1990), we selected a number of “information rich” cases for in-depth study. Our sample was based on satisfaction of a certain number of criteria, including: access, size, organisation of IT, nature of activity, multi-national, stage in ERP implementation process and penetration of ERP modules. Thus the organisations we studied are multi-national companies in manufacturing sectors. As it turned out, all have implemented or are in the process of implementing SAP. As subsidiaries of major multi-nationals they have local IS departments who are responsible for the maintenance, delivery and support of non-ERP applications and interfaces. They also have overall responsibility for local infrastructure and desktop issues. Shang and Seddon (2000) argue that it is not meaningful to talk of benefits of IT systems without identifying the stakeholder group in whose interest the benefits are being judged. In this study we focused on the end-user in a local subsidiary, be they at the transaction level (operational) or at the reporting level (management). The resulting research questions can be summarised as follows: •How do multinational subsidiaries identify and cultivate unique competitive advantage (value) in a global organisation? •What impact (negative or positive) has the implementation of a global single instance enterprise solution on the value of the local subsidiary? •How has the implementation and day to day running of an ERP system changed the local company’s organisation, its way of working and the relationships (both local and with other parts of the global organisation)?Our research was based on 4 case studies carried out in manufacturing companies at different stages in their ERP implementation lifecycles :  a leading pharmaceutical company engaged in primary manufacturing (active ingredients manufactured and shipped to “secondary” tabletting customers), at the pre-implementation stage with a global SAP project  an international subsidiary of a leading high-tech manufacturer of computer equipment (one of 3 manufacturing plants worldwide, with responsibility for financial services for all countries outside the US), 2 years after go-live on a global Oracle system  a manufacturing subsidiary of a leading pharmaceutical company, still in the process of adding functionality to a mature SAP implementation  the Irish site of a US based supplier of electronic devices 6. Findings 6.1 Longitudinal case study In the first of the case studies quoted above, an interpretive / longitudinal case study approach was taken. Information was gathered via questionnaires and face-to-face interviews with the project team. The first questionnaire (concerning the objectives, benefits and project team organisation) was distributed to all team members during April 2003. Because our access to this site was excellent, in this case study, we were able to ask key Project personnel some questions on the expected level of impact on the business. The results are presented in Table 1. Taking the same basic format, but using some of the information gathered during the first survey, the second questionnaire was distributed to team leaders during May 2003. Questions centred on the key outstanding issues as the design was being locked down. Known or proposed workarounds for these outstanding issues were discussed. Areas where SAP functionality would improve the business process were also highlighted. This stage also involved interviews with the local Information Systems team. The researchers also attended Gap analysis workshops facilitated by the global roll-out team, where the team formally presented perceived gaps and impacts to the business. Workshops for Planning, Production and IS were attended. www.ejise.com ©Academic Conferences Limited Table 1: Impact Matrix for ERP project in the first of our sites LEVEL OF IMPACT Core Competency/Area of Excellence HIGH MEDIUM LOW P N P N P N Customer Responsiveness 3 4 3 Medium to high positive/medium negative Innovation, New Product Introduction (NPI) 3 2 3 3 Medium to low positive/low negative ‘CAN DO’ Attitude 1 2 1 1 3 2 Low positive/high to low negative R&D 1 1 2 1 4 2 Low to medium positive/low negative Implementation of New Processes/Technologies 4 1 2 3 Medium positive/low negative Manufacturing Knowledge and Ability 2 4 4 1 Low to medium positive Project Delivery Track Record/Proven Performance 1 4 2 3 2 Medium to low positive Highly Efficient and Flexible Operation/Quality 1 5 2 1 2 Medium positive/medium to low negative Other (please specify) Inspection Readiness 1 High positive Quality 2 High positive In addition to these questionnaires, one-to-one interviews were carried out with business process leads during the design phases of the project from May through to July. These interviews were aimed at gaining an understanding of outstanding issues in each of the process areas. A key observation on the results in Table 1 is the spread across positive / negative attitudes, one could have expected more consensus. There may be good reasons for this divergence. Different processes are subject to different levels of change in a large integration project of this sort. In this ERP project, there was a subtle change in the team’s motivation (which coincided with the first chance to get some hands-on experience with the application modules), moving from an attitude of this being a “necessary evil” to one where team members begin to feel “this isn’t so bad, in fact there’s some good functionality here”. It is vital for the team to make this transition, the risk being that if they don’t, users out in the organisation, with much less exposure to the new functionality than the global roll-out team, will not make it either. As “ambassadors” for the new system, their own commitment will directly influence that of the business in general. 6.2 Post-implementation study The other three case studies, both post-implementation, were interview based. Key personnel in the manufacturing, finance and information systems functions were interviewed to solicit feedback on the impacts of the move to a global single instance ERP system. Face to face interviews and questionnaires were used. Based on our observations, subsidiaries of multi-national companies that are implementing a global ERP solution frequently find themselves in a position where the changes are imposed rather than designed. There are specific changes to the local business functions (steep learning curve on new business processes, more dependent on corporate resources, less authority to introduce local process changes, loss of ownership of data). There are equally quite dramatic changes to the role of the local information systems support function, who have usually lost control of the hardware and software resources used in satisfying user demand. Furthermore, they have often seen their responsibilities dramatically narrowed down to data maintenance and desktop support duties. The following sections contain a catalogue of the problems we have observed at the sites we visited. 6.2.1 Problems with data entry into the ERP package One of the first changes to the organisation imposed by integrated ERP systems is that they push the responsibility for data correctness and completeness back to the point of entry. A sales rep taking an order on behalf of a customer is driven by the desire to see the order processed as quickly as possible so that the revenue can be recognised and commission payments made. This can represent a significant cultural change in organisations where the sales function is used to much more freedom in the manner in which orders are recorded, often with a sales administration function doing the clean-up of the order behind the scenes. The net effect can be a sudden increase in data entry for the sales function. A multi-national high-tech manufacturer admitted from the start of their implementation project that they were going to suffer a 10% increase in workload in the Sales Admin function. Given the goal of making processes more efficient, it Electronic Journal of Information Systems Evaluation Volume 6 Issue 2 (2003) 21-32 www.ejise.com ©Academic Conferences Limited 28 may be difficult to convince sales of the benefit to them of providing more accurate information at the outset, which ostensibly only benefits others further along the revenue cycle. In the high-tech manufacturing site we visited, one of the driving forces in implementing an ERP solution was the ability to execute customer orders as the business grew (scalability). However, use of the new sales order functionality implied a heavier workload on Order Entry (more screens, each with more fields) than previously on legacy systems. Therefore a change to the organisation would be required before any net benefit could be derived. In the Pharmaceutical subsidiary, extra data entry staff are required to input Purchase Orders (created in SAP) into the Fixed Assets module of SAP. The presumed goal of integration was not achieved in this case and this does not seem to have been anticipated until it was time to go live. 6.2.2 Loss of Productivity The biggest single concern of management at another pharmaceutical manufacturing site we visited was how to maintain its hard won reputation for excellence and efficiency (eg. number of shop-floor technicians employed per compound manufactured) in the face of expected changes to the organisation due to a corporate ERP implementation. This organization rates its customer responsiveness as its top core competence, proud of its ability to deliver 98% of customer orders within pre-set lead times. It achieves this today in some cases by being able to “express” deliver unplanned orders from customers, even to the extent of turning around an order within one working day. Managers’ concerns arise from the news of a sister site in the previous stage of the global roll out, which went live at the beginning of 2003 and is still (9 months later) struggling to recover from the drastic reduction in its on-time customer delivery rate from 92% to 64%. In the procurement cycle, pushing the responsibility for correctness of data and approval back to its source (any creating or approving a purchase) also has significant organisational impact, and one that no amount of training can prepare the company for. In another company we visited, managers baulked when the head of international finance, responsible for several billion dollars worth of revenue, was inundated with hundreds of purchase requisitions after go-live. The team in charge of the purchase approval hierarchy, which had spent months trying to get the users to co-operate in configuring approval levels, suddenly got a lot of close co-operation when it was too late to make substantial changes without reworks to the software configuration. 6.2.3 Aiming ERP at a moving target A high-tech company implementing a single instance global Oracle system found that the business needs (or core value) of fast execution changed during the 24 months it took to implement. Initially chosen because of its “scalability”, that is its ability to grow and expand with the rapidly growing demand for products, the ERP solution was replacing creaking legacy systems which were barely able to cope with each new quarter end. By the time the system was going live, the demand for products had dropped dramatically, and the business value was no longer geared towards execution of orders, rather it was getting the orders in the first place. Thus, ERP projects can also fail because they try to match the stable and monolithic functionality of the ERP package to the moving target of the challenges facing the organisation. 6.2.4 Changes to routinised processes towards less flexibility The discipline imposed by the system can again introduce strain in processes where there may have been greater flexibility in the past. Staff shipping product are not responsible for the accuracy of the configurations in finished goods compared to the sales orders to be fulfilled, but they will feel the pressure most acutely if the system is preventing them from shipping product with what they would feel to be marginal differences with the sales order. Even the simple fact of working off a single global customer database can create problems for subsidiaries with different local practices. Global customers may have complex legal structures with different legal entities in different countries, albeit rolling up under the one parent company from a financial perspective. What is an acceptable bill-to address for a customer in the US may not be acceptable in Japan. One manufacturing company found 40 occurrences of the same customer name in their legacy systems. While this was acceptable as long as each country knew from experience which customer number corresponded to the active one, this is not transferable to a global system, which will Fergal Carton & Frederic Adam www.ejise.com ©Academic Conferences Limited 29change all customer codes and refuse duplicates. Certainly an ERP system will impose discipline in terms of working with global data sources, but this discipline is often perceived as a loss of flexibility and lack of adaptability. Many ERP systems require that all inventory movements on the floor be associated with work orders, such that inventory gets consumed as the work progresses. In the high tech manufacturing company we visited, the in-house production model didn’t match this concept for 2 main reasons:  The starts plan for products are not work orders in that they do not yet relate to a specific sales order. Instead they are a best guess for finished goods requirements at quarter end. This is a build to stock scenario.  Components that are “consumed” at the beginning of testing may well be returned to inventory when a product is “de-configured” for allocation to a specific sales order For this reason, a workaround involving the definition of Standard Starts Configurations (as work orders) was created. These standard configurations allowed inventory to be consumed / returned, but do not form the basis of a match with a sales order. 6.2.5 Customisation The multinational high-tech company we visited was quoted a $1m modification budget for a customization to the system to allow lines to be shipped from a sales order independently of each other. In some cases, these small, but prohibitively expensive changes matter a lot for the proper operation of the firm. A pharmaceutical site we visited found that the automatic determination of batches from the warehouse to satisfy process orders precludes them from making any changes to batch weights as the process orders progress through manufacturing, a simple facility of their legacy system that they had been using routinely for years. Most ERP systems operate user representation groups (eg. Oracle Application User Group, Saphire group for SAP users) so that required modifications and enhancements can be channeled back into the application in new releases and “patches”. These enhancements are released on an irregular basis, and are subject to the vendors view of the “marketability” of the updates. This means that a company with an unusual process requirement may not be able to generate any interest in their customization because few other users have he same requirement. The same is doubly true for a local subsidiary of a multi-national relying on centralised IS support for systems modifications. An Italian subsidiary of a high-tech multi-national, for example, had to wait 18 months before the IS department would look at a VAT report (the report took a matter of days to develop, test and implement), simply because the requirement was not perceived as global. So ERP customers can end-up caught in a quandary of :  no choice in the selection of the software solution (based on global requirements)  huge commitment to the ERP project in terms of power users, training and cutover (particularly in smaller subsidiaries where fewer users handle more tasks)  implementation support which rarely takes into account local user constraints (eg. language)  no capacity for customizing the software (only vanilla ERP functionality used)  no support for local reporting requirements if they do not benefit the global organization  no local support as the solution has been built, designed and is run by a centralized core team  no support for interfacing from the ERP solution to local systems The typical scenario in these instances is that the local user falls back to downloading information from the ERP system, and uses local applications to solve transactional or reporting needs (severely damaging the integrity of the entire solution). In the Italian subsidiary of a high-tech manufacturer, the ability to produce invoices dated with the customer delivery date (instead of the product ship date) was taken away by the implementation of the ERP system, and no alternative proposed. Although from a corporate perspective the stated objective of implementing ERP to shorten the financial close period to 2 days has been achieved, for at least one subsidiary this has meant the loss of the ability to automatically invoice customers. The workaround has been to put a hold on the invoice generated by the system, make the date change modification to the system generated output, and then release it. Electronic Journal of Information Systems Evaluation Volume 6 Issue 2 (2003) 21-32 www.ejise.com ©Academic Conferences Limited 30 This example illustrates the situation where the further users are (physically or hierarchically) from the central solution, the less likely they are to derive benefit from the application. A Financial Director for the same company, referring to the fact that modification requests tend to be met with a barrage of bureaucracy, except if they came from the headquarters themselves, said “It’s still a question of location, location, location”. 7. Conclusion The research study presented in this paper is on-going and we are only able to put forward preliminary findings at this stage. However, the observations we made in the four sites we visited lead us to believe that there is a great need for multi-national companies to be more cautious before they embark on multi-million, multi-year, multi-phase roll out implementation of enterprise-wide software packages. The positive arguments of the vendors are well known and well understood. However, it is not certain whether the reality of ERP implementations that steam-rolled local knowledge and local practices has yielded such tangible business benefits in real terms. Affording the illusion of greater control over large corporations to managers at head quarters can come at a high price if it dissolves the fragile fabric of an organisation’s competitive advantage in the process. The typical scenario of the roll-out, whereby all sites are asked to implement the common template within a prescribed time frame, may be appealing to managers in head office, but it is actually a nightmare for local managers. Typically, long hours have gone into fine-tuning their local knowledge and building this experience into their way of doing business. Applying the template may mean steamrolling these unique processes and jeopardise efficiency gains accumulated over time. An even more perverse effect of such implementation stems from the perception of many local managers in multinationals that they are not competing against other firms, either in the area or abroad, but against sister sites of their own firm who are engaged in the same activities. This perception is often well founded, in the case of one of the companies researched, where 20 or 30 manufacturing sites were reduced to less than 10 key sites worldwide over a period of a few years. In this game of local survival, it is the performance and productivity of each site that enables managers to make a case for their site’s unique contribution. The roll-out of ERP wreaks havoc in local organisations and may, at least in the medium term, change the balance of power between sites. From our point of view as researchers, it is difficult to see how this upheaval can be beneficial to either local sites or the global corporation. As we complete our case studies, we will be able to make specific suggestions for the development of more reliable models for creating the global implementation template for large scale ERP projects. This can be used both to guide further research in enterprise-wide systems and to inform the practice of implementing such systems in multi-national firms. 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